Uninformed opinion doesn’t matter: science does. Neither opinion nor beliefs balance science – science is a process of empirical observation, testing of theories, the replication of results, and the expansion of knowledge. There are theories based on research, investigation and observation across a large range of scientific disciplines. Neither belief nor opinion is a theory: they produce pseudoscience. Thus, conspiracy theories aren’t theories at all – they are beliefs, conspiracy beliefs.

James McDonald,
8 May 2020,